The plant was described by Linnaeus under the name of C. frutescens proper. The generic name may come from Latin capsa, meaning 'box', presumably alluding to the pods; or from the Greek word κάπτω kapto, 'to gulp'. The endocarp, which consists of moderately thick-walled, pitted and lignified cells with wavy walls. For black pepper, Czech uses pepř, while Slovak uses čierne korenie (literally, black spice) or, dialectally, piepor.. Pistacia vera . Pepper, dry Capsicum spp. Their botanical name is capsicum, but by an accident of history they are known as peppers. They can also be added, finely chopped, to gazpacho as a garnish. However, at extremely high temperature, 33 to 38 °C (91 to 100 °F), pollen loses viability, and flowers are much less likely to pollinate successfully. Angostura (cusparia bark) Galipea officinalis Hancock. Peru is thought to be the country with the highest cultivated Capsicum diversity since varieties of all five domesticates are commonly sold in markets in contrast to other countries. Capsicum fruits of several varieties with commercial value are called by various European-language names in English, such as jalapeño, peperoncini, and peperoncito; many of these are usually sold pickled. Plantain . Capsicums are also used extensively in Sri Lankan cuisine as side dishes. Ground chiles, or paprika, hot or otherwise, are a key ingredient in chorizo, which is then called picante (if hot chile is added) or dulce (if otherwise). Ideal growing conditions for peppers include a sunny position with warm, loamy soil, ideally 21 to 29 °C (70 to 84 °F), that is moist but not waterlogged. Pickled or marinated Capsicum are frequently added to sandwiches or salads. Sow seed in punnets and plant out in 4-6 weeks. It is called the small-grained Black Pepper, and grows on the hilly parts of Jamaica. The seeds themselves do not produce any capsaicin, although the highest concentration of capsaicin can be found in the white pith around the seeds. Capsicum. 0. The powdered form is a key ingredient in various commercially prepared foodstuffs, such as pepperoni (a sausage), chili con carne (a meat stew), and hot sauces. Also known as the Christmas pepper plant. in North America and South Africa, sweet pepper or simply pepper in the United Kingdom, Ireland and Malaysia, but typically called capsicum in Australia, India, New Zealand and Singapore. Capsicum has been also used in spasmodic affections, passive hemorrhages, especially uterine, and, when combined with the compound powder of ipecacuanha will, in many instances, promptly arrest hemorrhage after parturition. A plant can have many common (vernacular) names and often shares common names with other plants. In New Mexico, there is a capsicum annuum cultivar group called the New Mexico chile which a mainstay of the state's New Mexican cuisine. The genus comprises all the varied forms of fleshy-fruited peppers, including the mild bell peppers Mr. Reddy-September 28, 2016. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs). The Spanish conquistadores soon became aware of their culinary properties, and brought them back to Europe, together with cocoa, potatoes, sweet potatoes, tobacco, maize, beans, and turkeys. Family Group. pendulum, which led researchers to believe the two groups belonged to the same species.. Shimla, incidentally, is a popular hill-station in India (and mirch means chilli in local languages). Download Citation | Botanical briefs: Capsicum peppers | Capsicum peppers are widespread, both in and out of the kitchen, both nationally and internationally. Botanical name: Capsicum annuum; Other names: Chili pepper; Flavor: Hot, peppery, spicy; Associated cuisine: South Asian, Mexican; Used in: Curries, fajitas, enchilada; Uses: Curries, general seasoning, marinades, sauces, spice blends, Available form: fresh peppers, ground powder; Cayenne pepper belongs to the Capsicum annuum species of plants alongside bell peppers and jalapenos.  All are diploid. This first phylogenetic tree shows how the hot pepper relates to other organisms. Common Name. Capsicum: Early Botanical Texts on Capsicum The story of confusion about the correct botanical classification of Capsicum mirrors the history of botany itself. Crop name Botanical name. fasciculatum Irish. There are different types of peppers, and we used them as food vegetables, spices, and in medicine.  A study on capsaicin production in fruits of C. chinense showed that capsaicinoids are produced only in the epidermal cells of the interlocular septa of pungent fruits, that blister formation only occurs as a result of capsaicinoid accumulation, and that pungency and blister formation are controlled by a single locus, Pun1, for which there exist at least two recessive alleles that result in non-pungency of C. chinense fruits.. Fact Sheet . Cultivars descended from the wild American bird pepper are still found in warmer reg… Capsicum consists of 20–27 species, five of which are domesticated: C. annuum, C. baccatum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, and C. Cheese can also be rubbed with paprika to lend it flavour and colour. Capsicum frutescens is a PERENNIAL growing to 1 m (3ft 3in) by 0.6 m (2ft). In Mexico, the term chile is used for "hot peppers", while the heatless varieties are called pimiento (the masculine form of the word for pepper, which is pimienta). Harvest. Organic Farming Business Plan Information. Pistachio nut . Dried Capsicum may be reconstituted whole, or processed into flakes or powders. The pericarp is glabrous, somewhat shrunken, leathery and thin, more or less translucent and dull orange-red in colour. They can be eaten in salads, like shopska salata; fried and then covered with a dip of tomato paste, onions, garlic, and parsley; or stuffed with a variety of products, such as minced meat and rice, beans, or cottage cheese and eggs. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs). Capsicum (/ˈkæpsɪkəm/) is a genus of flowering plants in the nightshade family Solanaceae. Botanical source.  The secretion of capsaicin protects the fruit from consumption by insects and mammals, while the bright colors attract birds that will disperse the seeds. In Japanese, tōgarashi (唐辛子, トウガラシ "Chinese mustard") refers to hot chili peppers, and particularly a spicy powder made from them which is used as a condiment, while bell peppers are called pīman (ピーマン, from the French piment or the Spanish pimiento). Statistics. The scientific name of Capsicum is the botanical name or formal name. Capsicum - History of Peppers. In more recent times, an aerosol extract of capsaicin, usually known as capsicum or pepper spray, has become used by law enforcement as a nonlethal means of incapacitating a person, and in a more widely dispersed form for riot control, or by individuals for personal defense. Bolivian consumers distinguish two basic forms: ulupicas, species with small round fruits including C. eximium, C. cardenasii, C. eshbaughii, and C. caballeroi landraces; and arivivis, with small elongated fruits including C. baccatum var. It is in flower from August to September. The Capsicum annuum genome is approximately 3.48 Gb, making it larger than the human genome. In Argentina and Spain, the variety C. chacoense is commonly known as "putaparió", a slang expression equivalent to "damn it", probably due to its extra-hot flavour. Hydroponic Growing System and … All other varieties of hot capsicum are called chilli. In Italy and the Italian- and German-speaking parts of Switzerland, the sweet varieties are called peperone and the hot varieties peperoncino (literally "small pepper"). One explanation of the origin of the word capsicum comes from the Greek verb kapto which means to bite or to swallow hungrily, and could refer to the biting sensation of the hot chilli when consumed. 151 . The fruit contains five to ten seeds in each loculus. In northern India and Pakistan, C. annuum is also commonly called shimla mirch in the local language and as "Kodai Mozhagai" in Tamil which roughly translates to "umbrella chilli" due to its appearance. In Germany, the heatless varieties as well as the spice are called Paprika and the hot types are primarily called Peperoni or Chili while in Austria, Pfefferoni is more common for these; in Dutch, this word is also used exclusively for bell peppers, whereas chilli is reserved for powders, and hot pepper variants are referred to as Spaanse pepers (Spanish peppers). It is in leaf all year, in flower from July to September, and the seeds ripen from August to October. In Canada, Ireland, South Africa and the United Kingdom, the heatless varieties are commonly known simply as "peppers" (or more specifically "green peppers", "red peppers", etc. For the variety known as "capsicum" in some countries, see, "How to grow chilli pepper / RHS Gardening", "Phylogenetic Relationships of Capsicum (Solanaceae) Using DNA Sequences from Two Noncoding Regions: The Chloroplast atpB-rbcL Spacer Region and Nuclear waxy Introns", "Screening genetic resources of Capsicum peppers in their primary center of diversity in Bolivia and Peru", "Genome sequence of the hot pepper provides insights into the evolution of pungency in Capsicum species", "NMSU Cultivars - The Chile Pepper Institute", "Capsaicin effects on consumption of food by Cedar Waxwings and House Finches", "Chile Information – Frequently Asked Questions", "Genetic control of pungency in C. chinense via the Pun1 locus", "The Scoville Scale of Hotness - Capsaicin Level", "Giant Marconi Pepper: Smoky Sweet Flavor, Large Fruit", "Italian Frying peppers - Produce Express of Sacramento, California", "Slovník slovenského jazyka z r. 1959 – 1968", Capsicums: Innovative Uses of an Ancient Crop, Capsicum and Chillies: Commercial Cultivation, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Capsicum&oldid=993765601, Articles with dead external links from February 2020, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Articles with disputed statements from November 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2014, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 12 December 2020, at 11:03. Several breeding programs are being conducted by corporations and universities. So, it can be quite fascinating to check what was written – let alone, what illustrations of what kinds of chile pepper were published – … Their name comes from the Greek word “kapto” which means “to bite” or “to swallow”. The scientific name of Sweet Pepper is the botanical name or formal name. Latin name of the genus: Capsicum Latin name of herbal substance: Capsici fructus Botanical name of plant: Capsicum annuum L. var. In about 12 weeks. ---Description---Cayenne or Capsicum derives its name from the Greek, 'to bite,' in allusion to the hot pungent properties of the fruits and seeds.Cayenne pepper was introduced into Britain from India in 1548, and Gerard mentioned it as being cultivated in his time. In Czech and Slovak, the term paprika is too used for all kinds of capsicums. 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